RNA degradation is a vital post-transcriptional process which ensures that transcripts are maintained at the correct level within the cell. DIS3L2 and XRN1 are conserved exoribonucleases that are critical for the degradation of cytoplasmic RNAs. Although the molecular mechanisms of RNA degradation by DIS3L2 and XRN1 have been well studied, less is known about their specific roles in the development of multicellular organisms or human disease. This review focusses on the roles of DIS3L2 and XRN1 in the pathogenesis of human disease, particularly in relation to phenotypes seen in model organisms. The known diseases associated with loss of activity of DIS3L2 and XRN1 are discussed, together with possible mechanisms and cellular pathways leading to these disease conditions.
- © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society