Table 1 Summary of current knowledge of apoptosis-inducing antifungal peptides and proteins

Abbreviations: n.d., not determined; HE, human erythrocytes.

Peptide/proteinSourceAntifungal spectrumInteraction partners on fungal envelopeMode of actionInteracting signalling cascadesToxicity to mammalian cells
Micro-organismWH1B. amyloliquefaciensR. solani; C. albicans; F. oxysporiumn.d.Inhibition of glucan synthesis; apoptosis; caspase-like activity; cytochrome c releasen.d.n.d.
PAFP. chrysogenumA. nidulans; A. fumigatus; A. niger; B. cinerean.d.Hyperpolarization of plasma membrane; activation of ion channels; ROS; apoptosiscAMP/PKA pathway; PKC/MAPK pathwayNot toxic
PlantRsAFP2Radish seed (R. sativus)C. albicans; C. krusei; A. flavus; F. solaniSphingolipid; GlcCerHyperpolarization of membrane potential; membrane permeabilization; ion fluxes; ROS; apoptosis; independent of Mca1MAPK signalling pathwaysNot toxic
HsAFP1Coral bells (H. sanguinea)C. albicans; C. krusei; A. flavus; B. cinerea; F. culmorumn.d.Membrane permeabilization; ROS; apoptosisMAPK signalling pathwaysn.d.
OsmotinTobacco (N. tabacum)F. oxysporium; P. infestans; N. crassa; C. albicansPho36Alters membrane potential; membrane permeabilizationMAPK signalling pathways; Ras2/cAMP pathwayNot toxic
InsectPsacotheacinYellow spotted long-horned beetle (Ps. hilaris)C. albicans; C. parapsilosisn.d.Cell membrane damage; membrane polarization; pore formation; membrane permeabilization; apoptosis; increased metacaspase activityn.d.No haemolytic activity towards HE
MelittinEuropean honeybee (A. mellifera)C. albicans; C. parapsilosisn.d.Formation of voltage-dependent ion channels across the membrane; membrane permeabilization; apoptosisn.d.Haemolytic activity towards HE; toxic
AmphibianDsS3/DsS3-(1–16)Tree frog (P. sauvagii)Might bind mannosylphosphate from cell wall proteinsDsS3: membrane permeabilization; DsS3-(1–6): ROS; apoptosis; independent of metacaspase Yca1, requires Aif1n.d.No haemolytic activity towards HE
MammalLactoferrinHuman/bovineC. albicans; C. tropicalis; C. krusein.d.Alters membrane potential; membrane permeabilization; iron sequestration; cytosolic acidification; apoptosisn.d.Not toxic